The Laboratory of Integrated Performance in Design (LIPID) engages in questions of energy, health, comfort and perception and their interactions in the design of the built environment, with an overall strategic goal of fulfilling building occupant needs and a core focus area on daylighting strategies. Our work involves different perspectives and methods, ranging from the human scale to the building and even urban scale, based on both simulations and experimental work. LIPID aims to bring new models, methods, metrics, decision support platforms and physical demonstrators, to enrich the designer’s toolset and adopt a holistic and integrated approach in architecture.

Latest publications

Detecting trends and further development potential of contemporary façade design for workspaces

L. Pastore; M. Andersen

Architectural Engineering and Design Management. 2019-01-08.

DOI : 10.1080/17452007.2018.1561414.

Façade design is claimed to fulfil a number of requirements in workplaces, ranging from privacy to safety and from comfort to aesthetics. For future R&D efforts in façade design, identifying the key drivers that should shape contemporary facades in office buildings is not always an easy task because of the discrepancies that can emerge between the diverse expectations from professionals and the possible conflicts that can exist in conciliating global design trends with local climate constraints. This research aims to enrich the debate on façade design developments for office buildings, by discussing the outcomes of an on-line survey distributed worldwide among professionals working in the building design sector. Outcomes of 245 responses are summarized in an interactive chart that enables to visualize the potential of some main aspects and technologies characterizing today’s office building skins. The potential is shown based on the observed level of relevance among different professional profiles or climates. While energy and comfort emerged as the aspects attaining global and interdisciplinary consensus, the features that entailed psychological or emotional reactions attracted the most diverse evaluations. Despite not being fully exhaustive, the observations arising from this study can help with identifying possible research and developments gaps in the field.


Building energy certification versus user satisfaction with the indoor environment: Findings from a multi-site post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in Switzerland

L. Pastore; M. Andersen

Building and Environment. 2019-01-07. Vol. 150, p. 60-74.

DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.01.001.

Voluntary green-rating systems exist in different forms worldwide to certify the sustainability of residential and commercial buildings and help national policies promote energy-efficient design practices. Despite the general assumption that sustainable buildings also provide high comfort and healthy conditions, existing studies on green-rated buildings led to controversial conclusions in this regard.This paper aims to report the results of a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) conducted on four Swiss green buildings certified with the Minergie label to analyse their ability in providing comfort to their occupants. The POE protocol included winter and summer environmental monitoring campaigns (long-term and instantaneous measurements) as well as extensive and point-in-time comfort surveys.From the study it was found that, although the observed environmental factors were most of the time complying with the norm prescriptions, the indoor conditions were never attaining the commonly used 80%satisfaction threshold by the users. Temperature and air quality appeared, in particular, as the most critical factors, with satisfaction rates never greater than 50% in three out of the four case studies.Design factors related to the personal control on the indoor environment as well as personal factors like gender, climate of origin and duration of residence in the country were also found to have an impact in the comfort rating.Professionals involved in the design and management of these buildings all agreed that feedback of this kind from building in use could help inform the design and operational process and move towards more effective green building certification systems and regulations.


Daylight and temperature in buildings: interaction effects on human responses

G. Chinazzo / M. Andersen; J. Wienold (Dir.)

Lausanne, EPFL, 2019. p. 356.

DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-9342.

Over the past years, increasing efforts have been devoted to understand how people perceive the indoor environment with the goal to improve building design and operation. Studies have separately addressed the effects of the four main aspects that influence the perception of the indoor environment, i.e., visual appearance, thermal condition, acoustic ambiance, and air quality. However, building occupants are simultaneously exposed to multiple indoor stimuli and their perception of the indoor environment depends on the mutual combination and interaction of such stimuli. Despite the increasing interest in the topic, few studies on the interactions between indoor factors are available. Most of them have focused on interactions between thermal and visual factors due to their large implications for energy consumption and building design. In this context, electric lighting has been primarily used as visual stimulus, leaving a knowledge gap on interaction effects in daylit environments. To address this challenge, this doctoral thesis focuses on the effects of visual and thermal interactions on human responses, with the use of daylight as the sole source of light. Two types of visual-thermal combinations are investigated: temperature and "daylight color" (i.e., daylight transmitted through colored glazing) and temperature and daylight quantity (i.e., illuminance levels). The aim of this work is threefold: (i) understand the effect of daylight color and quantity on thermal perceptual and physiological responses; (ii) investigate the influence of indoor temperature on visual perception of daylight; and (iii) explore the effect of daylight and temperature combination on the overall comfort perception. To address the previous aspects, four experiments were conducted. Two of them were carried out in an office-like test room to investigate both visual-thermal combinations. One field study was performed to further explore temperature and daylight quantity interactions. One experiment was conducted in a test room with the use of virtual reality to further investigate temperature and "daylight color" interactions. The results of this thesis show that daylight and temperature do interact, influencing human responses in a perceptual rather than in a physiological way. The interaction effects are bi-directional, as temperature influences visual perception, and daylight color and quantity affects thermal perception. Daylight conditions and indoor temperatures simultaneously and equally contribute to the overall comfort perception, but only after a relatively long exposure to the visual stimulus. The findings of this research suggest that indoor factors should not be considered separately but in combination. The integration in both research and practice of interaction effects between indoor factors will ultimately contribute to the improvement of comfort conditions inside buildings. Potentially, this integration will also allow to reduce the energy consumed in buildings to guarantee occupants' comfort due to the extension of the comfort ranges that currently neglect interaction effects between indoor environmental factors. Disentangling for the first time the complex relationship between daylight and indoor temperature, this research constitutes an additional step towards understanding interactions of indoor factors and contributes to the establishment of a comfortable and energy-efficient built environment.