Technical reports, standards and patents

LIPID publications

Technical reports


Smart Living Building Research Program - Executive Summary

T. Jusselme; A. Brambilla; V. Costa Grisel; S. Cozza; E. Hoxha et al.

2017. p. 32.

The smart living lab project is a pioneering, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional platform that combines several fields of research related to construction technologies. It aims to be a center of national scope, recognized on an international level and involving a variety of players and institutions. One of the smart living lab’s projects is the design and construction of its own building, which will be at the cutting edge of research and best practice on sustainability. Before starting the construction of the smart living building, a preliminary research called smart living building (SLB) research program has been set up, of which this report is the executive summary. Its objective is to sum up the research findings discovered in this frame, and to outline the way they can be used as fundamental requirements into the future operational design brief.



LIPID 2013

M. Andersen


This document is the 2013 (and first) edition of the yearly activity report of the Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Performance-Integrated Design (LIPID). It introduces the team and their research and teaching activities, as well as their main publications and international collaborations.



Daylighting, Artificial Lighting and Non-Visual Effects Study for a Residential Building

J. Mardaljevic; M. Andersen; N. Roy; J. Christoffersen

2012. p. 141.

The study uses a domestic dwelling as the setting to investigate and explore the applicability of daylighting metrics for residential buildings. The metrics address daylight provision for task and electric lighting usage. In addition to these it also investigates the formulation of preliminary metrics to evaluating the potential for non-visual effects. The setting, a residential building with and without skylights, was evaluated for all 32 combinations of eight European climates and four building orientations covering the cities of Hamburg, London, Madrid, Moscow, Ostersund, Paris, Rome and Warsaw. The evaluation is based on a real life renovation case in which new skylights have been added to the kitchen, living room, large and small bathrooms and staircase. This section summarises the findings based on 64 unique sets of climate-based daylight simulation (32 combinations x 2 design variants) in which three different aspects of daylight are evaluated: daylighting performance, energy savings for lighting and non-visual effects.



Espace & Lumière: Unité d'Enseignement M | Space & Light: Teaching Unit M

M. Andersen; B. Paule

2011. p. 173 (2010), 185 (2011).

The UE M course aims to improve the students’ ability to see, to plan and to design light in architecture. The purpose is to consider light as a resource, a raw material, and to understand how it can be used to emphasize architectural concepts. The students were asked to adopt a sustainable approach focusing on comfort and energy concerns. The following topics were adressed : daylighting optimization, artificial lighting, design and testing of specific day- and electric lighting systems.



Lightsolve Tutorial

M. Andersen; S. Kleindienst; J. L. Gagne

2010. p. 39.

This document contains information about how to install Lightsolve, how to create a SketchUp model which is recognizable by Lightsolve, how to run the renderer and how to navigate the Lightsolve interface. It also contains tips for troubleshooting known problems.


Delight in Greener Daylight - A Publication based on the outcomes of the Fall 2009 ‘Daylighting’ class

M. Andersen

2010. p. 91.

Daylighting is inherent in architectural design and is one of the main drivers of a building’s technical performance and its resulting human comfort and health. Students in the Fall 2009 Daylighting class taught by Marilyne Andersen, Associate Professor at MIT, worked in interdisciplinary teams to analyze designated portions of the second floor extension to the swissnex Boston building in Cambridge MA. With the aim of developing integrated solutions for façades on every side of the building, they focused on issues of glare, illumination, overheating, the ensuing energy requirements and the visual interest of the spaces. This publication documents the creative solutions that the students developed to answer this multi-faceted problem using models, data analyses, and simulations. Their work illustrates how challenging and inspiring it can be to answer a seemingly simple question, “What is good daylighting?”.



Design for a Sustainable Future

M. Andersen; J. Ochsendorf; J. M. Yoon

2009. p. 137.

Organized around a holistic design approach, this class examined the synthetic relationship between performance and design in addressing issues of sustainability in the built environment. The workshop introduced the theories behind a resource-efficient built environment and guided the design process by focusing creativity around performance goals. Students explored ways to effectively integrate considerations such as energy-efficiency, material use, structural stability, and occupant comfort into the design process. The chosen case study was an actual project : a second campus for the Jay Pritzker Academy in Siem Reap, Cambodia. The students worked in interdisciplinary teams to generate three different design proposals for the masterplan and various classroom structures for a new campus for 400 students with the goal of creating a truly sustainable and environmentally responsible 50,000 square foot campus. Areas that were particularly emphasized for this case study were energy, comfort, daylighting, as well as conservation of water and material resources, as drivers for better design for the campus and the classrooms. The goal of the workshop was to teach students that quality design, sustainability, and affordability are not mutually exclusive. By engaging the performance goals as integral to the creative design process, the hope is to synthesize design and building technology in productive ways to create a more sustainable future.



Bi-directional Photogoniometer for the Assessment of the Luminous Properties of Fenestration Systems

M. Andersen; J.-L. Scartezzini; L. Michel; C. Roecker; H.-P. Baumann et al.

2000. p. 84.

Most energy saving applications of advanced fenestration systems (solar blinds, novel types of glazing and daylight redirecting devices) require a precise knowledge of their directional light transmission features. These photometric properties can be described by a Bi-directional Transmission Distribution Function (BTDF) whose experimental assessment requires appropriate equipment. A novel bi-directional transmission photogoniometer, based on digital imaging techniques, was designed and set up for that purpose. The apparatus takes advantage of a modern video image capturing device (CCD digital camera) as well as of powerful image analysis software (pattern recognition) to considerably reduce the scanning time of a BTDF measurement, in comparison to existing devices that use a conventional approach (mobile photometer). A detailed calibration and validation procedure was used to obtain optimal experimental accuracy for the device during the assessment of BTDF data. It included a spectral, a photometric and a geometrical calibration of the digital video system, as well as several additional corrections, leading to an overall relative accuracy better than 11% for BTDF data. A special effort was made to improve the user-friendliness of BTDF measurement by facilitating the data acquisition and treatment (definition of a data acquisition and electronic data format) and by offering different possibilities of BTDF visualisation (hemispherical representation, axonometric view of photometric solids, C-planes). Overall, the photometric equipment was used to assess the BTDFs of more than 20 novel fenestration products of the industrial partner of the project (Baumann-Hüppe Storen AG). The experimental data produced was successfully used by the company to optimise the visual and energy saving performance of their products, which confirms the adequacy of the novel bi-directional photogoniometer for practical building applications.


Bi-directional Goniophotometer for advanced glazing materials based on digital imaging techniques - Part of Appendix 8.3 in "Daylight in Buildings - A source book on daylighting systems and components"

M. Andersen


For some time the building industry has been in need of a comprehensive reference that describes new and innovative technologies for utilizing daylight in buildings and assesses the performance of these systems. This information is of particular benefit to building design practitioners, lighting engineers, product manufacturers, building owners, and property managers. This book is the result of a coordinated international effort to gather the most up-to-date information available about the application and evaluation of advanced daylighting systems to enhance daylighting in non-residential buildings. Although the text emphasizes the performance of daylighting systems, it also includes a survey of architectural solutions, which addresses both conventional and innovative systems as well as their integration in building design. Innovative daylighting systems are assessed according to their energy savings potential, visual characteristics, and control of solar radiation.



Recommended Practice for Daylighting Buildings

K. (. Papamichael; M. Andersen; I. Ashdown; J. Bos; D. Brentrup et al.


This Recommended Practice conveniently gathers the basic data and techniques which help those concerned with the design of buildings and lighting systems understand and appreciate the opportunities and constraints inherent in daylighting. Daylighted buildings offer significant benefits that include visual and thermal comfort, occupant satisfaction, a connection to the outdoor environment, and reduced energy consumption, maintenance costs, and greenhouse gas emissions. Daylighting can result in significant electric lighting reduction in commercial buildings – 40% or more in side-lighted daylight zones and more than 50% is top-lighted daylight zones. The challenges of daylighting include glare, unwanted solar heat gain, the control of electric lighting, shading systems and coordination of the multiple disciplines affecting daylighting performance from initial planning to actual occupancy. In addition RP-5-13 also addresses daylight delivery methods and fenestration properties of various glazing systems, shading techniques, and control strategies. Measurements and daylight performance simulation tools are also described.


Approved Method: IES Spatial Daylight Autonomy (sDA) and Annual Sunlight Exposure (ASE)

L. (. Heschong; V. D. Wymelenberg; K. (Vice-Chair); M. Andersen; N. Digert et al.


The metrics described in this document are intended to be applicable to common workplace environments. They are based on an analysis of open offices, classrooms, meeting rooms, multi-purpose rooms, and service areas in libraries and lobbies, and so are most applicable to areas with similar visual tasks. These metrics are neither counter to, nor do they supersede, IES task lighting criteria for these space types. These metrics do not directly address energy consumption, as electric lighting management is highly variable. The area of analysis for these metrics is ideally a coherent “space”, defined by opaque walls and access to daylight through at least one wall or ceiling surface. It is also possible to apply these metrics to the “regularly occupied” floor area of a building, or some part of a building, such as one floor plate. It is important to specify the “area of analysis” to which the percentages apply. These metrics were derived from a study of daylit spaces in the continental United States, and thus are most applicable to similar latitudes and cultures.


Sustainable Lighting: An Introduction to the Environmental Impacts of Lighting

J. (. Boynton; M. Andersen; J. Ashmore; E. Bartholomew; P. Duane et al.


The intent of this Design Guide is to introduce the topic of sustainability, present its elements, and explain how it affects the design of lighting in process and product. This document is structured into two major sections. Section 1.0 introduces sustainable design and lighting impacts. Section 2.0 is an overview of sustainable lighting design and describes nine elements that address the central issues facing the lighting practitioner today. The next three sections (annexes) are organized into areas that address assessment and life cycle stages of lighting.


Approved Method: Photometric Testing of Skylights and Tubular Daylighting Devices under Hemispherical Sky Conditions

B. (. Mosher; M. Andersen; K. Kopitzke; K. Papamichael; R. McCluney


This guide provides the IES required uniform method for determining and reporting the photometric characteristics of skylights and tubular daylighting devices. It describes the procedures followed and the precautions observed in obtaining uniform and reproducible measurements of tubular daylighting devices and skylights with glass or plastic glazing (not recommended for devices with clear glazing). This guide identifies the components and the structure type needed to adequately measure daylighting devices. The procedures, calibration of the equipment, and determination of sun angles and sky conditions are also discussed.




A Passive Louver-Based Daylighting System

K. W. Thuot; M. Andersen


Patent number(s) :
US20130321923 (A1)

A daylighting system for use in a building including a louver array having a first longitudinal element, and a second longitudinal element spaced therefrom. At least one of the first and second elements has an asymmetrical profile, each of the first and second longitudinal elements has a bottom profile including a parabolic surface, portions of opposing surfaces of the first and second longitudinal elements define a compound parabolic concentrator profile, a center line of the compound parabolic concentrator profile is non-horizontal and is tilted upwards, and the array prevents line of sight therethrough. A louver for a daylighting system includes (i) a leading edge defined by an intersection of a parabolic concentrator surface, and a flat surface; and (ii) a trailing edge defined by an intersection of a lower compound parabolic concentrator profile, and an upper compound parabolic concentrator profile. A method for designing a louver profile is provided.